A permanent redirect in Apache using status code 301
The last few day’s I’ve been toying with Nagios, setting up a monitoring system. An Apache redirect to HTTPS was one of the tasks I wanted to accomplish. This would redirect the Nagios vhost from HTTP to HTTPS using an Apache 2.4.6 VirtualHost, and no resource expensive rewrite would be necessary.
mod_alias provides the
RedirectMatch directives, which provide a means to redirect one URL to another. This kind of simple redirection of one URL, or a class of URLs, to somewhere else, should be accomplished using these directives rather than a mod_rewrite
The Redirect directives are used to instruct clients to make a new request with a different URL. They are often used when a resource has moved to a new location (source).
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The first step in redirecting HTTP traffic to HTTPS in Apache is to create two VirtualHost directives for your website. One for HTTP (
*:80) and one for HTTPS (
The next step is to use the Redirect directive to redirect one VirtualHost to another.
See the following, complete, VirtualHost configuration to redirect Nagios from HTTP to HTTPS on Apache:
<VirtualHost *:443> # The ServerName directive sets the request scheme, hostname and port that # the server uses to identify itself. This is used when creating # redirection URLs. In the context of virtual hosts, the ServerName # specifies what hostname must appear in the request's Host: header to # match this virtual host. For the default virtual host (this file) this # value is not decisive as it is used as a last resort host regardless. # However, you must set it for any further virtual host explicitly. ServerName www.example.com ServerAdmin email@example.com DocumentRoot /data/example.com/http/ # Available loglevels: trace8, ..., trace1, debug, info, notice, warn, # error, crit, alert, emerg. # It is also possible to configure the loglevel for particular # modules, e.g. # LogLevel info ssl:warn # For most configuration files from conf-available/, which are # enabled or disabled at a global level, it is possible to # include a line for only one particular virtual host. For example the # following line enables the CGI configuration for this host only # after it has been globally disabled with "a2disconf". # Include conf-available/serve-cgi-bin.conf ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ "/data/example.com/http/cgi-bin/" AddHandler php5-script .php AddHandler cgi-script .pl .cgi DirectoryIndex index.php AddType text/html .php <Directory "/data/example.com/http/"> Options None AllowOverride None </Directory> <Directory "/data/example.com/http/cgi-bin/"> AllowOverride None Options ExecCGI </Directory> ErrorLog /data/log/example.com/ssl-error.log CustomLog /data/log/example.com/ssl-access.log combined SSLEngine On SSLCertificateFile /data/example.com/ssl/example.com.crt SSLCertificateKeyFile /data/example.com/ssl/example.com.key </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost *:80> ServerName www.example.com DocumentRoot /data/example.com/http/ ErrorLog /data/log/example.com/error.log CustomLog /data/log/example.com/access.log combined Redirect / https://www.example.com/ </VirtualHost>
RedirectMatchdirectives, which provide a means to redirect one URL to another. Use this to set up an Apache 2.4 redirect from HTTP to HTTPS.
Redirect / https://www.example.com/ line is what redirects HTTP traffic to HTTPS, e.g from http://www.example.com to https://www.example.com. The rest of the VirtualHost configuration is pretty much self explanatory.
Tip: for Windows Server IIS, you can use IIS’ httpRedirect HTTP to HTTPS in a
# 2.2 configuration: Order allow,deny Allow from all
# 2.4 configuration: Require all granted
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